The Translational English Corpus (TEC)

 

Centre for Translation & Intercultural Studies

School of Modern Languages

The University of Manchester

A Resource for the Research Community

Click Here to Open Saturnino Luz's Workshop Notes/Slides on Web-based Corpus Software (Pdf File)

 

TEC is a computerised collection of contemporary translational English text. It is freely available to the research community, with a set of software tools to allow scholars to investigate the language of translated English. The corpus is continually being enlarged and the software tools refined and made more versatile and user-friendly.

 

What is TEC?

TEC is a corpus of contemporary translational English: it consists of written texts translated into English from a variety of source languages, European and non-European. It was set up and is currently managed by Professor Mona Baker at the Centre for Translation & Intercultural Studies. The custom-made software for processing the corpus, which is downloadable from the web, is designed by Dr. Saturnino Luz, Trinity College Dublin, who is also in charge of maintaining the corpus.

What does TEC consist of?

TEC consists of four subcorpora: fiction, biography, news and inflight magazines. The overall size of the corpus is currently (2003) around 10 million words. It can be accessed freely via the web, using a custom-built concordancer designed by Dr. Saturnino Luz.

TEC is meticulously documented in terms of extralinguistic features such as gender, nationality and occupation of the translator, direction of translation, source language, publisher of the translated text, etc. This information is held in a separate header file for each text. The concordancing software is designed to make the information in the header file available to the researcher at a glance

What type of research does TEC support?.

TEC has supported a broad range of studies in two main areas: the way in which the patterning of translated text might be different from that of non-translated text in the same language, and stylistic variation across individual translators. Examples of both types of study can be found in the Selectred Bibliography attached to this document.

 

 

TEC files


Subcorpus: Inflight magazines


Lufthansa Bordbuch 1/93 (5 articles: if000001.txt)
Lufthansa Bordbuch 2/93 (6 articles: if000002.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 3/93 (6 articles: if000003.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 4/93 (6 articles: if000004.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 5/93 (6 articles: if000005.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 6/93 (5 articles: if000006.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 1/94 (5 articles: if000007.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 2/94 (7 articles: if000008.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 3/94 (6 articles: if000009.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 4/94 (4 articles: if000010.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 5/94 (5 articles: if000011.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 6/94 (5 articles: if000012.txt)

Lufthansa Bordbuch 1/95 (7 articles: if000013.txt)

Blue Wings Oct-Nov 93 (7 articles: if000014.txt)

Blue Wings Feb-March 94 (8 articles: if000015.txt)

Blue Wings June-July 94 (12 articles: if000016.txt)

Blue Wings Aug-Sept 94 (8 articles: if000017.txt)

Blue Wings Oct-Nov 94 (11 articles: if000018.txt)

Blue Wings Dec 94-Jan 95 (9 articles: if000019.txt)


Subcorpus: Newspapers


The Guardian (102 articles in 31 issues from 19.5.1994 to 15.12.1994: ns000001.txt - ns000030.txt)
The European (64 articles in 37 issues from 27.5.1993 to 30.11.1994: ns000031 - ns000068.txt)

 

Subcorpus: Biography


Wittgensten's Nephew: A Friendship by Thomas Bernhard, translated from German by Ewald Osers (bb000001.txt)

Forbidden Territory by Juan Goytisolo, translated from Spanish by Peter Bush (bb000002.txt)

Notebooks 1924 - 1954 by Wilhem Furtw?ngler, translated from German by Shaun Whiteside (bb000003.txt)

Realms of Strife by Juan Goytisolo, translated from Spanish by Peter Bush (bb000004.txt)

Conversations with Dvora. An experimental biography of the first modern Hebrew woman writer, by Amia Lieblich, translated from Hebrew by Naomi Seidman (bb000005.txt)

Memories of Beethoven by Gerhard von Breuning, translated from German by Henry Mins and Maynard Solomon (bb000006.txt)

The Childhood of Nivasio Dolcemare by Alberto Savinio, translated from Italian by Richard Pevear (bb000007.txt)

The Search by Latifa Zayyat, translated from Arabic by Sophie Bennett (bb000008.txt)

Story of a City by Abd Al-Rahman Munif, translated from Arabic by Samira Kawar (bb000009.txt)

Girls of Alexandria by Edwar al-Kharrat, translated from Arabic by Frances Liardet (bb000010.txt)

Delirium and Destiny by Maria Zambrano, translated from Spanish by Carol Meier (bb000011.txt)

The Boulez-Cage Correspondence edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez, translated from French and edited by Robert Samuels (bb000012.txt)

The Private Life of Chairman Mao by Zhisui Li, translated from Chinese by Tai Hung-chao (bb000013.txt)

 

Subcorpus: Fiction


Restless Nights, short stories by Dino Buzzati, translated from Italian by Lawrence Venuti (fn000001.txt)


The Siren, short stories by Dino Buzzati, translated from Italian by Lawrence Venuti (fn000002.txt)

Turbulence by Chico Buarque, translated from Brazilian Portuguese by Peter Bush (fn000003.txt)

The Stone Raft by José Saramago, translated from Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000004.txt)

The History of the Siege of Lisbon by José Saramago, translated from Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000005.txt)

Discovering the World by Clarice Lispector, translated from Brazilian Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000006.txt)

The Gospel according to Jesus Christ by José Saramago, translated from Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000007.txt)

The Stone of Laughter by Hoda Barakat, translated from Arabic by Sophie Bennett (fn000008.txt)

Memoirs of Leticia Valle by Rosa Chacel, translated from Spanish by Carol Maier (fn000009.txt)

Passion by I. U. Tarchetti, translated from Italian by Lawrence Venuti (fn000010.txt)

Lucio's Confession by Mario De S? Carneiro, translated from Portuguese by Margaret Jull Costa (fn000011.txt)

Fantastic Tales, short stories mainly by I. U. Tarchetti, translated mainly from Italian by Lawrence Venuti (fn000012.txt)

The Dedalus Book of Surrealism, short stories by different authors, translated mainly from French and edited by Michael Richardson (fn000013.txt)

Violetta by Pieke Biermann, translated from German by I. Rieder and J. Hannum (fn000014.txt)

The Head of Vitus Bering by Konrad Bayer, translated from German by W. Billeter (fn000015.txt)

Worlds of Difference by Georges Goldshmi, translated from German by J. Kirkup (fn000016.txt)

Our Conquest by Gert Hofmann, translated from German by C. Middleton (fn000017.txt)

Wonderful, Wonderful Times by Elfriede Jelinek, translated from German by M. Hulse (fn000018.txt)

Lust by Elfriede Jelinek, translated from German by M. Hulse (fn000019.txt)

Infanta by Bodo Kirchhoff, translated from German by J. M. Brownjohn (fn000020.txt)

The Monument by Erich Loest, translated from German by I. Mitchell (fn000021.txt)

The Terrors of Ice and Darkness by Christoph Ransmay, translated from German by J. Woods (fn000022.txt)

Winner takes all by Dieter Wellershoff, translated from German by P. Knight (fn000023.txt)

The Dedalus Book of French Horror, short stories by different authors, translated from French by Terry Hale and Liz Heron (fn000024.txt)

Sacred Cow by Diamela Eltit, translated from Spanish by Amanda Hopkinson (fn000025.txt)

The Compassion Protocol by Hervé Guibert, translated from French by James Kirkup (fn000026.txt)

To The Friend Who Did Not Save My Life by Hervé Guibert, translated from French by Linda Coverdale (fn000027.txt)

Quarantine by Juan Goytisolo, translated from Spanish by Peter Bush (fn000028.txt)

For Every Sin by Gabriel Josipovici, translated from Hebrew by Jeffrey M. Green (fn000029,txt)

A Mortal Sin by Giovanni Verga, translated fby Iain Halliday (fn000030.txt)

The Golden Chariot by Salwa Bakr, translated from Arabic by Dinah Manisty (fn000031.txt)

Justice by Bernard Evans, translated from Welsh by Marion Eames (fn000032.txt)

The Voice of the Turtle, short stories by different authors, translated from Cuban Spanish (fn000033.txt)

The Prostitute by K. Surangkhanang, translated from Thai by David Smyth (fn000034.txt)

Strawberry and Chocolate by Senel Paz, translated from Spanish by Peter Bush (fn000035.txt)

Manual of Painting and Calligraphy by José Saramago, translated from Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000036.txt)

The Hour of the Star by Clarice Lispector, translated from Portuguese by Giovanni Pontiero (fn000037.txt)

The Dark Domain by Stefan Grabinski, translated from Polish by Miroslaw Lipinski (fn000038.txt)

Mothballs by Alia Mamdouh, translated from Arabic by Peter Theroux (fn000039.txt)

The Eye of the Mirror by Liana Badr, translated from Arabic by Samira Kawar (fn000040.txt)

Jerome by Franco Troiano, translated from Italian by Allan Riger-Brown (fn000041.txt)

Declares Pereira by Antonio Tabucchi, translated from Italian by Patrick Creagh (fn000042.txt)

Eden, Eden, Eden by Pierre Guyotat, translated from French by Graham Fox (fn000043.txt)

The Japanese Chronicles by Nicolas Bouvier, translated from French by Anne Dickerson (fn000044.txt)

Feet in Chains by Kate Roberts, translated from Welsh by Idwal Walters (fn000045.txt)

The Secret Room by Marion Eames, translated from Welsh (fn000046.txt)

The Golden Road by Marion Eames, translated from Welsh (fn000047.txt)

Dubai Tales by Muhammad al Murr, translated from Arabic by Peter Clark (fn000048.txt)

Grandfather's Tale by Muhammad al Murr, translated from Arabic by Peter Clark (fn000049.txt)

Sabriya by Ulfat Idilbi, translated from Arabic by Peter Clark (fn000050.txt)

The Woman Watching by Paola Capriolo, translated from Italian by Liz Heron (fn000051.txt)

The Emigrants by W.G. Sebald, translated from German by Michael Hulse (fn000052.txt)

Artemisia by Anna Barti, translated from Italian by Shirley D’Ardia Caracciolo (fn000053.txt)

Far from Madina by Assia Djebar, translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000054.txt)

Women of Sand & Myrrh by Hanan al-Shaykh, translated from Arabic by Catherine Cobham (fn000055.txt)

City of Saffron by Edwar al-Kharrat, translated from Arabic by Fraces Liardet (fn000056.txt)

State of Absence by Tahar Ben Jelloun, translated from Arabic by James Kirkup (fn000057.txt)

Cutting Timber by Thomas Bernhard, translated from German by Ewald Osers (fn000058.txt)

The Sand Child by Tahar Ben Jelloun, translated from Arabic by Alan Sheridan (fn000059.txt)

Silent Day in Tangier by Tahar Ben Jelloun, translated from Arabic by David Lobdell (fn000060.txt)

Respected Sir by Naguib Mahfouz, translated from Arabic by Rasheed El-Enany (fn000061.txt)

A Sister to Scheherazade by Assia Djebar, translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000062.txt)

Endings by ‘Abd al-Rahman Munif, translated from Arabic by Roger Allen (fn000063.txt)

Bedside Manners by Luisa Valenzuela, translated from Spanish by Margaret Jull Costa (fn000064.txt)

Cousin Bazilio by Eça de Queiroz, translated from Portuguese by Joe Staines (fn000065.txt)

Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade by Assia Djebar, translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000066.txt)

The Flight of the Tiger by Daniel Moyano, translated from Spanish by Norman Thomas di Giovanni (fn000067.txt)

The story of Zahra by Hanan Al-Zhaykh, translated from Arabic by Peter Ford (fn000068.txt)

Season of Migration to the North / The Wedding of Zein by Tayeb Salih, translated from Arabic by Denys Johnson-Davies (fn000069.txt)

My Grandmother's Cactus - Stories by Egyptian Women (8 different authors - please see Project Database), translated from Arabic by Marilyn Booth (fn000070.txt)

Beirut Nightmares by Ghada Samman, translated from Arabic by Nancy N. Roberts (fn000071.txt)

Elissa by Fawzi Mellah, translated from French by Howard Curtis (fn000072.txt)

Down to the Sea by Gamil Atia Ibrahim, translated from Arabic by Frances Liardet (fn000073.txt)

The Honour of the Tribe by Rachid Mimouni, translated from French by Joachim Neugroschel (fn000074.txt)

Milk for the Orange Tree by Gisèle Halimi, introduced and translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000075.txt)

The rock of Tanios by Amin Maalouf, translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000076.txt)

The Game of Forgetting by Mohamed Berrada, translated from Arabic by Issa J. Boullata (fn000077.txt)

The Veil of Silence by Djura, translated from French by Dorothy S. Blair (fn000078.txt)

Land of Many Colors & Nanna-ya by Maryse Condé, translated from French by Nicole Ball and introduced by Leyla Ezdinli (fn000079.txt)

The Wiles of Men and other stories by Salwa Bakr, translated from Arabic by Denys Johnson-Davies (fn000080.txt)

A purple sea by AMBAI, translated from Tamil by Lakshmi Holmström (fn000081.txt)

 

Sample Header File

TITLE

       Filename:        fn000009.txt

       Subcorpus:     Fiction

       Collection:      Memoirs of Leticia Valle

TRANSLATOR

       Name:            Carol Maier

      Gender:            female

      Nationality:       American

      Employment:     Lecturer

TRANSLATION

      Mode:              written

      Extent:              55179   

      Publisher:          University of Nebraska Press

      Place:                USA

      Date:                 1994

      Copyright:          University of Nebraska Press

      Comments:         Title in European Women Writers Series

TRANSLATION PROCESS

       Direction:           into mother tongue

       Mode:               written from written source text

       Type:                 full

AUTHOR

       Name:               Rosa Chacel

       Gender:             female

       Nationality:        Spanish

SOURCE TEXT

       Language:         Spanish

       Mode:              written

       Status:              original

       Place:               Spain

       Date:                1945

 

 

Select Bibliography

Baker, Mona (1993) ‘Corpus Linguistics and Translation Studies: Implications and Applications’, in Mona Baker, Gill Francis and Elena Tognini-Bonelli (eds) Text and Technology: In Honour of John Sinclair, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 233-250.

Baker, Mona (1995) ‘Corpora in Translation Studies. An Overview and Suggestions for Future Research’, Target 7(2): 223-43.

Baker, Mona (1996) ‘Corpus-based Translation Studies. The Challenges that Lie Ahead’, in Harold Somers (ed) Terminology, LSP and Translation, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 175-86.

Baker, Mona (1998) ‘Réexplorer la langue de la traduction: une approche par corpus’ (Investigating the Language of Translation: A Corpus-based Approach), Meta 43(4): 480-485.

Baker, Mona (1999) ‘The Role of Corpora in Investigating the Linguistic Behaviour of Professional Translators’, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 4(2): 281-298.

Baker, Mona (2000) ‘Towards a Methodology for Investigating the Style of a Literary Translator’, Target 12(2): 241-266.

Kenny, Dorothy (1997) ‘(Ab)normal Translations: a German-English Parallel Corpus for Investigating Normalization in Translation’, in Barbara Lewandowsk-Tomaszczyk and Patrick Janes Melia (eds) Practical Applications in Language Corpora. PALC '97 Proceedings, Lódz: Lódz University Press, 387-392.

Kenny, Dorothy (1998) ‘Creatures of Habit? What Translators Usually Do with Words’, Meta 43(4): 515-523.

Kenny, Dorothy (1998) ‘Corpora in Translation Studies’, in Mona Baker (ed) Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, London and New York: Routledge, 50-53.

Kenny, Dorothy (1998) ‘Theme and Rheme in Irish and English: A Corpus-based Study’, Working Papers in Language and Society, School of Applied Language and Intercultural Studies, Dublin City University, 1-25.

Kenny, Dorothy (1999) ‘The German-English Parallel Corpus of Literary Texts (GEPCOLT): A Resource for Translation Scholars’, Teanga 18: 25-42.

Kenny, Dorothy (2000) ‘Lexical Hide-and-Seek: looking for creativity in a parallel corpus’, in Maeve Olohan (ed) Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St. Jerome, 93-104.

Kenny, Dorothy (2000) ‘Translators at Play: Exploitations of Collocational Norms in German-English Translation’, in Bill Dodd (ed) Working with German Corpora, Birmingham: University of Birmingham Press, 143-160.

Kenny, Dorothy (2001) Lexis and Creativity in Translation: A Corpus-based Study, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

Klaudy, Kinga and Krisztina Karoly (2000) ‘The Text-organizing Function of Lexical Repetition in Translation’, in Maeve Olohan (ed) Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St. Jerome, 143-159.

Kohn, Janos (1996) ‘What Can (Corpus) Linguistics Do for Translation?’, in Kinga Klaudy, José Lambert and Aniko Sohar (eds) Translation Studies in Hungary, Budapest: Scholastica, 39-52.

Laviosa, Sara (1997) ‘How Comparable Can ‘Comparable Corpora’ Be?’, Target 9(2): 289-319.

Laviosa, Sara (1998) ‘The English Comparable Corpus (ECC): A Resource and a Methodology’, in Lynne Bowker, Michael Cronin, Dorothy Kenny and Jennifer Pearson (eds) Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

Laviosa, Sara (ed) (1998) L’Approche Basée sur le Corpus/The Corpus-based Approach, Special Issue of Meta 43(4).

Laviosa-Braithwaite, Sara (1996) ‘Comparable corpora: towards a corpus linguistic methodology for the empirical study of translation’, in Marcel Thelen and Barbara Lewandoska-Tomaszczyk (eds) Translation and Meaning Part 3, Maastricht: UPM, 153-163.

Laviosa-Braithwaite, Sara (1997) ‘Investigating Simplification in an English Comparable Corpus of Newspaper Articles’, in Kinga Klaudy and Janos Kohn (eds) Transferre Necesse Est, Budapest: Scholastica, 531-540.

Mauranen, Anna (2000) ‘Strange Strings in Translated Language: A Study on Corpora’, in Maeve Olohan (ed) Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St. Jerome, 119-141.

Olohan, Maeve and Mona Baker (2000) ‘Reporting that in Translated English: Evidence for Subliminal Processes of Explicitation?’, Across Languages and Cultures 1(2): 141-158.

Sardinha, Berber A. P. (1997) ‘Patterns of Lexis in Original and Translated Business Reports: Textual Differences and Similarities’, in Karl Simms (ed) Translating Sensitive Texts: Linguistic Aspects, Amsterdam & Atlanta: Rodopi, 147-153.

Stewart, Dominic (2000) ‘Conventionality, Creativity and Translated Text: The Implications of Electronic Corpora in Translation’, in Maeve Olohan (ed) Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St. Jerome, 73-91.

Stewart, Dominic (2000) ‘Poor Relations and Black Sheep in Translation Studies’, Target 12(2): 205-228.

Tymoczko, Maria (1998) ‘Computerized Corpora and the Future of Translation Studies’, Meta 43(4): 652-659.

Ulrych, Margherita (1997) ‘The impact of multilingual parallel concordancing on translation’, in Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and Patrick James Melia (eds) PALC ’97. Practical Applications in Language Corpora, Lodz: Lodz University Press, 421-436.

Zanettin, Federico (2000) ‘Parallel Corpora in Translation Studies: Issues in Corpus Design and Analysis’, in Maeve Olohan (ed) Intercultural Faultlines. Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, Manchester: St. Jerome, 105-118.